Hawthorn Extract


Blumenthal, M., Goldberg, A. & Brinckman, J., 2000. Herbal medicine: expanded Commission E monographs, 1st ed., Newton MA: Integrative Medicine Communications.


Brixius, K., et al., 2006. Crataegus special extract WS 1442 induces an endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated vasorelaxation via eNOS-phosphorylation at serine 1177. Cardiovasc Drugs and Therapy, 20(3), 177-184. PMID: 16779533


Degenring, F.H., et al., 2003. A randomised double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of a standardised extract of fresh Crataegus berries (Crataegisan) in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure NYHA II. Phytomedicine, 10(5), 363-369. PMID: 12833999


Fong, H.H.S. & Bauman, J.L., 2002. Hawthorn. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 16(4), 1-8. PMID: 12597258


Pittler, M.H., Schmidt, K. & Ernst, E., 2003. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure: meta-analysis of randomized trials. The American Journal of Medicine, 114(8), 665-674. PMID: 12798455

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